Learning and teaching resources on Container Politics in Pakistan

Source: Container Politics in Pakistan since 1988: Opposition Tactics in Response to Changing News Media Imperatives. SIDDIQUI, A. A. (Author). 27 Sept 2021: Doctoral Thesis

The resources shared on this webpage is not an exhaustive or a definitive list. It serves as a brief introduction to the field and will be updated. 

News and magazine articles, reports and other resources

Ghumman, Khawar (2014). Live from D-Chowk, it’s the Imran Khan show! Dawn. 

Javed, U. (October 2015). The great divide: Politics for the poor has gone out offashion. Herald. First published in October 2015.

Jahangir, Ramsha (2022). Life in PTI’s social media bubble. Dawn. 

Malik, Abdul Moiz. (2023). Tik Tok: the new frontier of political info-wars. Dawn. 

Pakistan: The next generation. British Council (2009). 

Prateek Joshi (2020). Mystics, Mullahs, and Markets in Post 9/11 Pakistan. Jamhoor. 

Shivani, Anis (2022). Aping American ‘social justice’ jargon. Dawn. 

Siddiqui, A., A (2024). Making sense of the Imran Khan ‘narrative’ in the information age. Blog post.

Staff report (1992). “Battle for survival of Pakistan has begun,” Dawn. Headline from a press conference held by Benazir Bhutto, leader of the opposition at the onset of the PPP Long March. 

Assange, Julian (2012). The Julian Assange Show Episode 10: Khan. Journeyman Pictures.

Also see: WHO Strategic Communications Framework

Also see: Reuters Online Training: Introduction to digital journalism

Also see: Dealing with misinformation: a guide for journalists and educators

In-depth references

Journal articles

Ahmed, S., & Skoric, M. M. (2014). My name is Khan: The use of twitter in the campaign for 2013 Pakistan general election. In Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 2242–2251).

Gamson, W. A., & Wolfsfeld, G. (1993). Movements and Media as Interacting Systems. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 528(Citizens, Protest and Democracy), 114–125.

Gamson, W. A. (2004). Bystanders, Public Opinion and the Media. In D. A. Snow, S. A. Soule, & H. Kriesi (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jaffrelot, C. (2015). Narendra Modi and the power of television in Gujarat. Television and New Media, 16(4), 346–353.

Jamil, S., Iqbal, A., Ittefaq, M., & Kamboh, S. A. (2022). Building a Media Literate Society: Pathways to Improve Media and Information Literacy Education in Pakistan. Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, 77(4), 414-428. https://doi.org/10.1177/10776958221125358

Mulla, A. (2017). Broadcasting the Dharna : Mediating “ Contained ” Populism in Contemporary Pakistan. International Journal of Communication, 11, 4181–4196.

Nelson, M. J. (2011). Embracing the Ummah: Student Politics beyond State Power in Pakistan. Modern Asian Studies.

Pintak, L. (2014). Islam , identity and professional values : A study of journalists in three Muslim-majority regions. Journalism, 15(4), 482–503. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884913490269

Siddiqui, A. A. (2020). Aurat March , a threat to mainstream tribalism in Pakistan. Interface: A Journal for and about Social Movements, 12(1), 64–71. Retrieved from https://www.interfacejournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Siddiqui.pdf

Tufekci, Z., & Wilson, C. (2012). Social Media and the Decision to Participate in Political Protest: Observations From Tahrir Square. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 363–379.

Tudor, M (2014) Shifting tides in South Asia: Renewed hope in Pakistan? Journal of Democracy 25 (2) 105-118.

Yousaf, S. (2016). Political marketing in Pakistan: exaggerated promises, delusive claims, marketable development projects and change advocacy. Journal of Public Affairs, 16(2), 140–155.


Bennett, L. W., & Segerberg, A. (2013). The logic of connective action: digital media and the personalization of contentious politics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Castells, M. (2012). Networks of outrage and hope: Social movements in the internet age. Cambridge: Polity.

Cushion, S., & Lewis, J. (2010). The rise of 24-hour news television: Global perspectives. New York: Peter Lang.

El-Nawawy, M., & Iskandar, A. (2003). Al-jazeera: The story of the network that is rattling governments and redefining modern journalism. Cambridge, MA: Westview

Gitlin, T. (1980). The Whole World is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

McAdam, D., Tarrow, S., & Tilly, C. (2001). Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Milne, K. (2005). Manufacturing Dissent: Single-issue protest, the public and the press. London: Demos.

Nasr, V. R. (2000). International Politics, Domestic Imperatives, and Identity Mobilization: Sectarianism in Pakistan, 1979-1998. Comparative Politics, 32(2), 171–190.

Shaikh, F. (2009). Making Sense of Pakistan. New York: Columbia University Press.

Scalmer, S. (2002). Dissent Events: Protests, the Media and the Political Gimmick in Australia. Protest, the Media and the Political Gimmick in …. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press Ltd.

Tilly, C. (2006). Regimes and Repertoires. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Ullah, H. K. (2014). Vying For Allah’s Vote: Understanding Islamic Parties, Political Violence, and Extremism in Pakistan. New Delhi: India: Foundation Books, Cambridge University Press.

Vliegenthart, R., & Walgrave, S. (2012). The interdependency of mass media and social movements. In H. A. Semetko & M. Scammell (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Political Communication. London: SAGE.